Well, yeah, that’s a track … Umm, what about all those little fiddly bits?
Concept Illustrated: Pressure Against the Track Wall (Canine toe pad)
The idea: Show pressure against the wall while the track is forming
While every track is being made, some sort of outer wall is created by many parts of the foot. This portion of the track preserves and expresses significant information about how the being reacted to its world before, as, and even after the track was made. The ways it used the foot as it created the track left this information in the track wall. This in turn is a reflection of that beings’ reactions, choices, and emotions.
The illustration above is an effort to begin the process of illustrating the many variations (limitless?) of this tracking concept in 3D motion to allow trackers and students to watch the formation of this aspect of the track.
Concept Illustrated: The Wave, Simple? …
The Idea: Illustrate the movements of the substrate (in this case dry-ish sand) as the wave is generated by a foot moving at a slow walking pace.
The wave can be an obvious or subtle track feature. Two waves made by the same foot with the same energy and intent, can look quite different, for example if one is made on damp sand , and the other in dry sand.
A wave has a least two phases …
The first-phase wave begins at the point where the heel contacts the ground, as the substrate begins responding to the movement of the incoming foot. This phase surges forwards just ahead of the initial contact between the sole of the foot and the ground, until the ball lands, and the toes have reached the ground. At this point all weight is on the foot and the first-phase wave is complete.
The second-phase wave begins as the heel starts to lift and continues as the foot rolls up onto the ball, and while the step changes to the push against the ground used to maintain forward motion. This push starts or keeps the foot and body moving forward while in equal and opposite reaction the new wave begins moving rearwards.
After the foot leaves and everything settles down, the final form of the wave remains. This final form is an indicator of how much energy was exerted to keep the body moving and where that push aimed the body.
Following is a link to a clip illustrating measurements of the timing and amounts of pressure created by a human foot during a walking step. This is not a simulation. If you watch it, notice there is an overall increase in pressure from heel towards toe, with the highest pressure generated at the big toe.
https://www.uni-due.de/~qpd800/animwf.html (Link to an illustration of pressure applied to ground by foot during a step. From the University of Essen, Essen, Germany. Prof. Ewald M. Hennig, Ph.D.)
It is not made clear whether the illustration this link returns also includes pressures applied horizontally towards the heel impact area to propel the body forwards.
Expectations: For a walk this is a subtle track form … Expect subtle results.
Concept Illustrated: The Ridge Between Canine Front Toes
The idea: As a canine foot is making a simple forward walking step, some of the earth under the two front toes is compressed and moved inwards and upwards into a sharp-edged ridge between them.
This essential track feature must be correctly reproduced in the simulations if they are to be accurate.
The goal here is to create a way to test for, by observing the result, the physics settings in Blender to that will best create this ridge. Eventually the most realistic settings found by this test will be used to configure sand objects so they create realistic tracks for other track simulations.
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Concept Illustrated: The Layer of Sand in Contact With The Foot
The idea: Is mostly to stir curiosity. As a beginning tracker the author skipped this fundamental perspective. Just to be able to identify a species from its track seemed like big progress.
No one gets to watch the foot surface interact with the soil as the track is made, and this interaction really is one of the fundamentals of track formation. What actually goes on? Is it worth learning about?
Maybe the usefulness of this perspective is just to help define the boundaries of what one needs to know?
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The Other Concepts:
Page: How To Find and See Tracks … Ways to reveal hard to see tracks and details
Predicting where the next track will be…
Dust Compressions (Dull on Shiny by Canine Toe Pad)
Controlling Lighting to Increase Visibility of Tracks
Track on ‘Bare’ Rock (Red Fox Front Foot)
Using Stone Rolls to Find Tracks
The Tracking Stick